Bladder cancer

What is bladder cancer?

Bladder cancer is a malignant tumour that starts in the superficial cells of the bladder.

Bladder cancer is most commonly found in urothelial cells, also called transitional epithelium. The urothelium lining the inside of the bladder, ureters, urethra and kidney pelvis. It is formed of urothelial or transitional cells. The cancer that starts in urothelial cells is called urothelial or transitional carcinoma. Urothelial carcinomas account for more than 90% of all bladder cancers.

When cancer only affects the urothelium, it is called superficial bladder cancer. If cancer spreads to the connective tissue or muscle of the bladder wall, it is more like an invasive cancer of the bladder.

Rare types of bladder cancer may also occur. Squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma are examples. Urothelial carcinoma may also originate in the pelvis or ureters, but this is less common.

What are the risk factors for bladder cancer (tumor)?

- Smoking is the most important risk factor for bladder cancer.

- The risk of having bladder cancer one day increases with age. This type of cancer usually occurs in people over 65 years of age. Bladder cancer is more common among whites, and men are more likely to get it than women.

- Other rarer risk factors are Arsenic, occupational exposure to chemicals, cyclophosphamide and chronic bladder irritation.

What are the symptoms of bladder cancer (tumor)?

- It is possible that bladder cancer does not cause any signs or symptoms in the early stages of the disease.
- The most common symptom of bladder cancer is the presence of blood in the urine (hematuria). Sometimes it can only be seen under the microscope of a urine test.
- Other symptoms of bladder cancer may be a need to urinate frequently (frequent urination), an urge to urinate (urgent urination), and a pain or burning sensation when urinating.
- Loss of appetite, anaemia, pool mass and swollen legs are signs and symptoms of a rather advanced disease.

How to make the diagnosis of bladder cancer?

- A urine test often shows microscopic hematuria.
- Urinary cytology has cancer cells in more aggressive bladder cancers.
- A pyeloscan eliminates urothelial cancer from the upper urinary tract.
- Cystoscopy can visualize a bladder tumour.
- A bladder biopsy can sometimes be performed.

What is the treatment of a bladder tumor?

Transurethral resection of a bladder tumor (TURBT) is most often performed to remove a tumor that is found only in the superficial layer of the bladder and has not developed in the deeper muscle layer of the bladder wall, a cancer non-invasive muscle bladder. TURBT is also the first step to diagnose and treat a more advanced tumor.

Partial or segmental cystectomy removes the tumor with part of the bladder.

Radical cystectomy removes the entire bladder and the surrounding fatty tissue and surrounding lymph nodes. Reproductive organs may also be removed. It involves a urinary diversion that creates a urinary tract that is needed once the bladder has been removed completely.

Immunotherapy (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin BCG vaccine) is indicated. to treat tumors found only in the lining of the bladder but which are at high risk of developing in the deep layers, especially high grade T1 tumors.

During intravesical chemotherapy, drugs are introduced into the bladder using a urinary catheter. Intravesical chemotherapy may be used instead of BCG or bladder cancer may not respond to BCG. Mitomycin is the drug that is used most in intravesical chemotherapy. A dose of mitomycin is usually given to the bladder after the surgery in which the tumor is removed. Mitomycin-based intravesical chemotherapy reduces the risk of recurrence or recurrence of bladder cancer in people whose tumors are found only in the bladder lining and who have not developed in the muscle layer of the bladder. the bladder wall, which is a non-invasive cancer of the bladder.

Systemic chemotherapy may be a treatment option for bladder cancer that has spread to other tissues near the bladder, a local cancer.

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